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Communication is neccesary. Langauge is not. Language nevertheless serves its function — to express one’s mental content.

There are countless examples of communication amongst beings and entities. Animals communicate, yet, there’s no language. There’s communication between atoms — a communication we can’t quite comprehend. We may understand the mechanisms that allow for communication between molecules and atoms, but alas, never understand in what way they communicate.

For example, I can imagine a removed observer, looking on and studying human communication. The observer would learn the mechanism by which we communicate, namely, the produced vocalizations from our mouths. Such a removed…

For Aristotle, there are five major modes of knowledge. Intuitive reason is one of such modes. Before we begin exploring how intuitive reason is possible and if such a notion exists, I must briefly elaborate on what exactly is intuitive reason. Aristotle describes it as so

intuitive reason grasps the first principles

The unfamiliar will ask, “what exactly are first principles”? To my understanding, they are fundamental ideas that are understood without prior experience. First principles cannot be observed empirically, but rather are arrived at by sheer intuition of reasoning. This is Aristotle’s attempt to the give his philosophies, and…

“ — What, then, does one experience of the Thou?

— Nothing at all. For one does not experience it.

— What, then, does one know of the You?

— Only everything. For one no longer knows particulars.”

Martin Buber, I and Thou

Martin Buber in his seminal work, I and Thou, reflects on man’s relation to the world. It is comprised of short aphorisms, that once understood in its totality, contribute to his larger argument — a philosophy of dialogue. A philosophy that is worth considering and analyzing.

His argument is as so: human beings are unsatisfied precisely…

Now, there is a need to scrutinize courage, not so much to apprehend whatiscourage, but to describe how is courage possible insofar that said notion is a now a matter of “inheritance” or “acquisition”. I will refrain from characterizing courage as a “trait”, for this proves to be a presumptuous label, bringing forth unnecessary ideas of personality and physiology. I rather avoid misattributing courage to the realm of personhood or to the physical constitutions for the time being. The debate on courage has hitherto been a factitious battle. In an attempt to describe how courage is possible, conventional wisdom drives…


I like thinking. I overthink. I like writing. I underwrite.

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